WARI CULTURE (500-1000 AD)

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ARTISANS OF THE REALM: Art of the Wari Empire and Its Contemporaries

http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~bharley/ArtisansoftheRealm.html

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Who Was Who in the Huari Empire*

http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~bharley/WWWIAS93Paper.html

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CHILDHOOD LOST: ABDUCTIONS, SACRIFICE, AND TROPHY HEADS OF CHILDREN IN THE WARI EMPIRE OF THE ANCIENT ANDES

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/wari/wari-sacrifice.pdf

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Was Wari a State?

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/wari/wari-state.pdf

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The Stone Ancestors: Idioms of Imperial Attire and Rank among Huari Figurines

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/wari/wari-figurines.pdf

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Wikipedia; Wari Culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wari_culture

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Wikipedia; Wari Empire

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wari_Empire

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Rural Wari Far from the Heartland: Huamanga Ceramics from Beringa, Majes Valley, Peru. Andean Past 8 (2007): 287-373

http://bruceowen.com/research/Owen2007-HuamangaCeramicsFromBeringa-AndeanPast8.pdf

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TIWANAKU AND WARI STATE EXPANSION: DEMOGRAPHIC AND OUTPOST COLONIZATION COMPARED

http://www.academia.edu/7935068/TIWANAKU_AND_WARI_STATE_EXPANSION_DEMOGRAPHIC_AND_OUTPOST_COLONIZATION_COMPARED

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The Wari Phenomenon: In the Tracks of a Pre-Hispanic Empire (with Milosz Giersz)

https://www.academia.edu/9726995/The_Wari_Phenomenon_In_the_Tracks_of_a_Pre-Hispanic_Empire_with_Milosz_Giersz_

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Regional Perspectives on Wari State Influence in Cusco, Peru (c. AD 600-1000) (Covey, Bauer, Bélisle, and Tsesmeli 2013)

http://www.academia.edu/14128989/Regional_Perspectives_on_Wari_State_Influence_in_Cusco_Peru_c._AD_600-1000_Covey_Bauer_Bélisle_and_Tsesmeli_2013_

Combined Wari/Moche Mass Tomb found in Peru

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2021/10/discovery-of-ancient-peruvian-burials.html?fbclid=IwAR1m7f-vcEMyZgDe3-eigERUGqs8MsAjY89fsiMQhVLK_PcORdg6djH-9ac#.YXMNOUWD3n0

EL CASTILLO DE HUARMEY

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Amazingly Untouched Royal Tomb Found in Peru

http://www.livescience.com/37810-royal-wari-tomb-found-in-peru.html

Ancient Metallurgist Buried with Bronze Tools Uncovered in Peru

http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/54996

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Glittering, unlooted 1,200-year-old royal tomb found in Peru

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/glittering-unlooted-1-200-year-old-royal-tomb-found-peru-6C10467531

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Inside the untouched tomb of Peru’s ancient Wari royals

http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/untouched-tomb-peru-ancient-wari-royals-article-1.1804479

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Treasures of the Peruvian royal tombs: Archaeologists find first unlooted tomb of the ancient Wari civilisation where three queens were buried alongside golden jewellery and human sacrifices

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2350600/Treasures-Peruvian-royal-tombs-Archaeologists-unlooted-tomb-ancient-Wari-civilisation-queens-buried-alongside-golden-jewellery-human-sacrifices.html

CERRO BAUL



The Rise and Fall of the Wari Complex of Cerro Baul in Peru

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/04/shrewd-water-use-helped-south-america-s-first-empire-thrive-so-why-did-drought-destroy

Were Wari and Tiwanaku in Conflict, Competition, or Complementary
Coexistence?; Survey Evidence from the Upper Osmore Drainage, Perú

http://bruceowen.com/research/owen1994-saa-were_wari_and_tiwanaku_in_competition.pdf

 

Cerro Baúl: A Wari Center on the Tiwanaku Frontier

 

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/wari/cerro-baul.pdf

Clash of the Andean Titans: Wari and Tiwanaku at Cerro Baúl

https://www.fieldmuseum.org/sites/default/files/WilliamsITF.pdf

Architecture and Power on the Wari–Tiwanaku
Frontier

http://www.uncg.edu/ant/moquegua/NashyWilliams_2005_AP3A[1].pdf

 

LA REAL

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Why slash apart a mummy? New research in Peru leaves archaeologists with ancient mystery

http://www.unreportedheritagenews.com/2011/03/why-slash-apart-mummy-new-research-in.html

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RAMADA

Archaeologists excavate ancient Wari temple in Peru 

http://www.academia.edu/9850580/Archaeologists_excavate_ancient_Wari_temple_in_Peru_from_Popular_Archaeology_

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PUKLLANA

Four Wari mummies unearthed at the Huaca Pucllana

http://enperublog.com/2010/10/21/four-wari-mummies-unearthed-at-the-huaca-pucllana/

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Burial in the Wari and the Tiwanaku Heartlands: Similarities, Differences, and Meanings

http://www.academia.edu/7320547/Burial_in_the_Wari_and_the_Tiwanaku_Heartlands_Similarities_Differences_and_Meanings

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Ancient Ichma Culture tombs found in Lima, Peru

dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3336096/Mystery-SITTING-mummies-1-000-year-old-bodies-pre-Incan-civilisation-buried-looking-sea.html


AYACUCHO

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Restored Ceramics Shed Light on the Wari Civilization of Peru

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2019/05/recently-discovered-wari-ceramics.html#d6jxeSmXQBF5LQoC.97

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Ancient Wari Beer Breweries Uncovered in Peru

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6936897/Archaeologists-earn-steady-supply-beer-kept-Wari-empires-society-afloat.html

PACHACAMAC

Ancient Pachacamac Cemetery Uncovered in Peru

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2019/04/1000-year-old-cemetery-unearthed-at.html#eJpjmgXFcFiCGOAw.97

TIWANAKU (400-900 AD)

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Wikipedia; Tiwanaku

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiwanaku

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Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture

http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/567

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Tiwanaku: Pre-Incan Civilization in the Andes

http://www.livescience.com/26792-tiwanaku.html

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Tiwanaku; Environmental Factors in the Rise and Fall of an Agrarian State.; James Q. Jacobs

http://www.jqjacobs.net/andes/tiwanaku.html#article

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Tiwanaku

http://www.crystalinks.com/tiahuanaco.html

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Wikipedia; Tiwanaku Empire

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiwanaku_empire

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Wikipedia; Kalasasaya

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalasasaya

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Kalasasaya

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/kalasasaya.htm

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Wikipedia; Puma Punku

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumapunku

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Puma Punku

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/pumapunku.htm

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Ancient Ruler’s Tomb, Gold Trove Found in Bolivia Pyramid

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/08/070806-pyramid-tomb.html

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The Changing ‘nature’ of Tiwanaku Religion and the Rise of an Andean State

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/tiahuanaco/tiwanaku-religion.pdf

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An Investigation into the Decline of the Tiwanaku Polity: Exploring the Role of Salinization

http://www.uwlax.edu/urc/JUR-online/PDF/2006/tenpas.pdf

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Consumption Of Psychoactive Drugs By Tiwanakuan Mummies

http://anthropology.net/2008/10/15/consumption-of-psychoactive-drugs-by-tiwanakuan-mummies/

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On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture

http://www.academia.edu/5433970/On_Reconstructing_Tiwanaku_Architecture

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New Light on Andean Tiwanaku

http://www.academia.edu/6920190/New_Light_on_Andean_Tiwanaku

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The Gateways of Tiwanaku: Symbols or Passages?

http://www.academia.edu/5457818/The_Gateways_of_Tiwanaku_Symbols_or_Passages

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Residence and Ritual in Tiwanaku

http://www.academia.edu/7511749/Residence_and_Ritual_in_Tiwanaku

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Out of Many, One: Style and Social Boundaries in Tiwanaku

http://www.academia.edu/6251993/Out_of_Many_One_Style_and_Social_Boundaries_in_Tiwanaku

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Archaeologists discover Tiahuanaco tomb in southern Peru

http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-archaeologists-discover-tiahuanaco-tomb-in-southern-peru-103256

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From Sequence to Social Organization:
Tiwanaku Multicomponent Society in Moquegua, Perú

http://bruceowen.com/research/owen2001-saa-from_sequence_to_social_org.pdf

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Pottery production, regional exchange, and state collapse during the Middle Horizon (A.D. 500–1000): LA-ICP-MS analyses of Tiwanaku pottery in the Moquegua Valley, Peru

http://www.academia.edu/13000212/Pottery_production_regional_exchange_and_state_collapse_during_the_Middle_Horizon_A.D._500_1000_LA-ICP-MS_analyses_of_Tiwanaku_pottery_in_the_Moquegua_Valley_Peru

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Coastal Colonies and the Collapse of Tiwanaku:
The Coastal Osmore Valley, Perú

http://bruceowen.com/research/owen1992-saa-coastal_colonies_collapse_of_tiwanaku.pdf

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DISTANT COLONIES AND EXPLOSIVE COLLAPSE:
THE TWO STAGES OF THE TIWANAKU DIASPORA
IN THE OSMORE DRAINAGE

http://bruceowen.com/research/owen2005a-laa-distant_colonies_explosive_collapse.pdf

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The Middle Horizon: What caused the collapse of Tiwanaku? Bruce Owens Outline

http://bruceowen.com/andeanae/490-03f-17.htm

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The Collapse of the Tiwanaku State:A View from the Osmore Drainage

http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/ioa/stanish/BAR1989-2/

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Rich Trove of Tiwanaku Artifacts Uncovered in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/apr/01/archaeologists-discover-exceptional-site-at-lake-titicaca

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6874655/Archaeologists-discover-ancient-religious-offerings-Lake-Titicaca.html

Archaeologists Find Oldest Proof of Ayahuasca use in Bolivia

https://news.berkeley.edu/2019/05/06/ayahuasca-sacred-bundle/

MOCHE CULTURE

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War and Death in the Moche World

http://www.johnverano.com/Verano/Publications_files/Verano%202001%20War%20and%20Death.pdf

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Clamshells Reveal Secrets of Pre-Columbian Society’s Decline

https://www.insidescience.org/content/clamshells-reveal-secrets-pre-columbian-societys-decline/974

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Wikipedia; Moche Culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moche_culture

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The Structural Paradox; Moche Culture as Political Ideology

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/moche/moche-culture.pdf

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Sex Pottery of Peru: Moche Ceramics Shed Light on Ancient Sexuality

http://www.ancient-origins.net/artifacts-other-artifacts/sex-pottery-peru-moche-ceramics-shed-light-ancient-sexuality-003017

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New Research into the Moche Civilization Diet

http://bit.ly/2qG9bKU

Cooking Pot with Llamas Head and Many Ingredients Uncovered at a Moche Site in Peru

https://www.forbes.com/sites/kristinakillgrove/2019/05/24/archaeologist-finds-pot-full-of-llama-face-stew-under-a-house-in-ancient-peru/#16f43bfbdff1

MOCHE HUMAN SACRIFICE

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Ancient Peru Torture Deaths: Sacrifices or War Crimes?

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/04/0425_020426_mochekillings.html

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Human Sacrifice and Postmortem Modification at
the Pyramid of the Moon, MocheValley, Peru

http://www.johnverano.com/Verano/Publications_files/Verano%202005%20Rakita%20et%20al%20volume.pdf

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Biodistance analysis of the Moche sacrificial victims from Huaca de la Luna plaza 3C: Matrix method test of their origins

http://www.johnverano.com/Verano/Publications_files/SutterVeranoAJPA2007.pdf

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Archaeologists find remains of sacrificed woman in Peruvian ruins

http://www.peruthisweek.com/news-archaeologists-find-remains-of-sacrificed-woman-in-peruvian-ruins-100377

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Communality and Diversity in Moche
Human Sacrifice

http://www.johnverano.com/Verano/Publications_files/Communality%20and%20Diversity%202008%20final.pdf

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PALEONTHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SACRIFICIAL VICTIMS AT THE PYRAMID OF THE MOON, MOCHE RIVER VALLEY, NORTHERN PERU

http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0717-73562000000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso

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Grim Rights of the Moche

http://archive.archaeology.org/0203/abstracts/moche.html

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New Clues About Human Sacrifices at Ancient Peruvian Temple Evidence suggests the Moche ritually slaughtered war captives.

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/11/131119-moche-human-sacrifice-war-victims-burials-archaeology-science/

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The Nature of Moche
Human Sacrifice’ A Bio-Archaeological
Perspective1

http://users.ipfw.edu/sutterr/SutterCortez2005.pdf

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Moche Human Sacrifice: The Role of Funerary and Warrior Sacrifice in Moche Ritual Organization

http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1194&context=totem

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Moche Human Sacrifice Code

http://anthropology-world.blogspot.com/2013/12/moche-human-sacrifice-code.html

Ancient Moche and Lambayeque Skeletons with Feet Missing Uncovered in Peru

The Daily Mail has the report here with good photos and a video;
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-6483025/Sixteen-1-700-year-old-skeletons-discovered-Peru-feet-MISSING.html

LORD OF SIPAN

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DeLanges at the Lord of Sipan Museum

http://www.delange.org/LordSipanGold/LordSipanGold.htm

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Youngest Moche noble yet at Sipán site

http://enperublog.com/2009/10/27/youngest-moche-noble-yet-at-sipan-site/#more-3382

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Señor de Sipan

http://enperublog.com/2007/12/20/senor-de-sipan/

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Iconography of the Moche: Unraveling the Mystery of the Warrior-Priest

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/moche/iconography.htm

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Wikipedia; Lord of Sipan

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_Sipán

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Tomb of the Lord of Sipan, Mochican Warrior Priest

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/tomb-lord-sipan-mochican-warrior-priest-001986

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Tombs of the Lords of Sipan

http://www.world-archaeology.com/features/tombs-of-the-lords-of-sipan.htm

The spectacular Mochican tomb complex of Huaca Rajada, Peru

http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/spectacular-mochican-tomb-complex-huaca-rajada-peru-001985

EL BRUJO

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Wikipedia; El Brujo

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Brujo

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Wikipedia; Lady of Cao

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_of_Cao

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Mummy of Tattooed Woman Discovered in Peru Pyramid

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/05/mummy-peru.html

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Tomb of the Tattooed Sorceress Queen, The Lady of Cao

http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends-opinion/tomb-tattooed-sorceress-queen-lady-cao-001203

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Mystery Mummy

http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2006/06/mystery-mummy/williams-text

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The Moche Mummy – the Lady of Cao

http://www.raisingmiro.com/2012/01/30/tattooed_mummy_of_cao_peru/

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THE WELL AND THE HUACA: CEREMONY, CHRONOLOGY, AND CULTURE CHANGE AT HUACA CAO VIEJO, CHICAMA VALLEY, PERU

http://www.academia.edu/3202073/THE_WELL_AND_THE_HUACA_CEREMONY_CHRONOLOGY_AND_CULTURE_CHANGE_AT_HUACA_CAO_VIEJO_CHICAMA_VALLEY_PERU

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Visiting El Brujo and the Dama de Cao

http://www.peruthisweek.com/travel-visiting-brujo-and-the-dama-cao-30333

PACHACAMAC

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Wikipedia; Pachacamac

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pachacamac

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Living with the Dead:  Conception and Treatment of the Dead at Pachacamac

http://www.pachacamac.net/results-2006-1.html

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What Did People Do at Pachacamac?: Identity, Form, Timing and Meaning of Offerings

http://www.pachacamac.net/results-2006-2.html

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Archaeologists uncover mass burial site in Peru

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/travelnews/9356106/Archaeologists-uncover-mass-burial-site-in-Peru.html

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Archaeology: Spectacular tomb containing more than 80 individuals discovered in Peru

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120522114643.htm

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Pachacamac

http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/313385

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DeLanges at Pachacamac

http://www.delange.org/Pachacamac/Pachacamac.htm

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Pachacamac

http://www.limaeasy.com/culture-guide/huacas-adobe-pyramids/archaeological-complex-of-pachacamac

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Human Sacrifice at Pachacamac

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/moche/pachacamac.pdf

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Ancient Monuments and Patterns of Power at Pachacamac, Central Coast of Peru

http://www.academia.edu/5370553/Ancient_Monuments_and_Patterns_of_Power_at_Pachacamac_Central_Coast_of_Peru

LIMON ARCHAEOLOGICAL COMPLEX

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Moche Desert Meeting Place Uncovered in Peru

International Business Times has the report here with photos;
http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/1500-year-old-painted-banquet-hall-offers-rare-insight-into-perus-ancient-moche-culture-1654375

The Daily Mail has its usual great photos and a video of the site;
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5249119/Ancient-finding-Peru-sheds-light-desert-society-archaeologist.html

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March 27, 2018

Intact 1,000 Year Old Mummy Uncovered at Pachacamac, Peru

Eurekalert has the report here;
https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-05/uldb-uad052418.php


An Important Moche Ceremonial Site Uncovered in Peru

National Geographic has the report with photos and a video;

https://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/history/ancient-throne-and-ceremonial-hall-unearthed-in-peru.aspx

LIMA CULTURE (200-600 AD)

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Wikipedia; Lima Culture

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lima_culture

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Wikipedia; Huaca Pucllana

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaca_Pucllana

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Wikipedia; Cajamarquilla

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cajamarquilla

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Cajamarquilla

http://www.limaeasy.com/culture-guide/huacas-adobe-pyramids/the-dead-city-of-cajamarquilla

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Recent Investigations at the Site of Cajamarquilla: Advances in the Study of Pre-Columbian Mortuary Practices of the Peruvian Central Coast

http://www.academia.edu/454977/Recent_Investigations_at_the_Site_of_Cajamarquilla_Advances_in_the_Study_of_Pre-Columbian_Mortuary_Practices_of_the_Peruvian_Central_Coast

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Glorious Pre-Columbian Lima

http://enperublog.com/2008/09/15/glorious-pre-columbian-lima/

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Lima Culture

http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Lima_culture

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Limatambo and the Huacas Santa Catalina & Balconcillo

http://enperublog.com/2009/04/23/limatambo-and-the-huacas-santa-catalina-balconcillo/

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Huaca Huallamarca

http://enperublog.com/2009/02/23/huaca-huallamarca/

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Huaca Huallamarca

http://www.limaeasy.com/culture-guide/huacas-adobe-pyramids/the-adobe-pyramid-huallamarca-pan-de-azucar

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Huaca Mateo Salado

http://enperublog.com/2008/09/10/huaca-mateo-salado/

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Huaca San Borja

http://enperublog.com/2009/05/01/huaca-san-borja/

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The decline of Chavín and the rise of the Lima Culture: Huallamarca

http://academia.wikia.com/wiki/History_Series_4:_decline_of_Chav%C3%ADn,_rise_of_Lima_Culture

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HUACA COLORADA

Odd Pyramid Had Rooftop Homes, Ritual Sacrifices?

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/10/101021-moche-pyramid-peru-science-sacrifice-archaeology-ancient/

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New pyramid discovered in Peru linked to ancient copper industry

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/history/new-pyramid-discovered-in-peru-linked-to-ancient-copper-industry-1979529.html

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PANAMARCA

Ancient Feathered Shield Discovered in Peru Temple

http://www.livescience.com/38599-ancient-shield-discovered-in-peru-temple.html

1,300-Year-Old Cemetery Found In Lima

https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2018/03/1300-year-old-cemetery-found-in-lima.html